Roman numerals are represented by seven different symbols:
Symbol Value I 1 V 5 X 10 L 50 C 100 D 500 M 1000
2 is written as
II in Roman numeral, just two one's added together.
12 is written as
XII, which is simply
X + II. The number
27 is written as
XXVII, which is
XX + V + II.
Roman numerals are usually written largest to smallest from left to right. However, the numeral for four is not
IIII. Instead, the number four is written as
IV. Because the one is before the five we subtract it making four. The same principle applies to the number nine, which is written as
IX. There are six instances where subtraction is used:
Ican be placed before
X(10) to make 4 and 9.
Xcan be placed before
C(100) to make 40 and 90.
Ccan be placed before
M(1000) to make 400 and 900.
Given an integer, convert it to a roman numeral.
Input: num = 3 Output: "III"
Input: num = 4 Output: "IV"
Input: num = 9 Output: "IX"
Input: num = 58 Output: "LVIII" Explanation: L = 50, V = 5, III = 3.
Input: num = 1994 Output: "MCMXCIV" Explanation: M = 1000, CM = 900, XC = 90 and IV = 4.
1 <= num <= 3999
This question can easily be solved if we know the additive and subtractive nature of Roman Numbers, and calculate the values of units, tens, hundreds, and thousands place of the digit.
Time Complexity: O(1)
Space Complexity: O(1)